Interpreting is not just a matter of saying, "Tell him this." It is important to understand how it works.
Interpreting vs. Translating
Interpreting is not translating.
What's the difference?
Interpreting involves transmitting speech from one language to another whereas translation involves written documents from one language to another.
Trained interpreters use first person, and speaking parties should do the same. Interpreters repeat each side as if they are the speakers. It saves time and is standard practice.
Ex. The Spanish speaker might say, "Soy un hombre alto." The interpreter then says, "I am a tall man," not "he is a tall man."
Meaning for Meaning
Interpreters interpret for meaning rather than word for word. This is because word-for-word interpreting is often confusing and impossible because the result would not be understandable. Each language has its own rules for the order of words in a sentence or usage of expressions. Also, some words in either language require two or more in the other.
Ex. "Casa blanca" when translated word for word is "house white." In a full sentence, this would be confusing and slow the interpreting process.
Modes of Interpreting
There are three modes of interpreting: simultaneous, consecutive and sight translation.
The interpreter speaks at the same time as the person for whom he or she is interpreting. The interpreter is a few words behind the speaker in order to hear enough words to correctly interpret the speaker. This mode is for when the listener is not part of the conversation.
Ex. An attorney examines a witness while a non-English speaking defendant sits at the defense table. A doctor speaks to a nurse in front of a patient.
The interpreter waits until the speaker finishes to begin interpreting. This requires memory skills and note taking to make sure that everything is recalled and interpreted. This is used when the listener is also an active part of the conversation.
Naturally, each side pauses to hear the other's response and gives the interpreter time to interpret. When a response is long, the interpreter may request more pausing to interpret what's been said before forgetting.
A hybrid mode of interpreting, it is called translation because it involves a document. The interpreter receives a document and reads it aloud in the target language. The interpreter reads the entire document and may even take notes before interpreting in order to correctly interpret its contents. This form is quite rare.